Thursday, July 23, 2020

Comp Time Vs. Overtime Which Should You Offer Employees

Comp Time Vs. Overtime Which Should You Offer Employees Normally, employees have a maximum number of hours they are supposed to work each week. Sometimes, however, employees may be required to work more hours than they are ordinarily supposed to.This could be caused by things such as an overflow of work and looming deadlines.In such cases where employees are required to work extra hours, the employees are supposed to be compensated for the extra time they put in.Employees who work overtime without being compensated may sue their employers in a federal court.Ideally, employers are supposed to compensate employees for any extra hours worked by providing overtime pay â€" this is where an employee receives monetary compensation for each hour worked in overtime.Some employers, however, opt to compensate extra hours worked by employees by providing comp time.Doing this allows employers to reduce their labor costs.In some cases, however, offering comp time as compensation for extra hours worked can ensnare you in legal suits, and therefore, as a n employer, you need to be vigilant about comp time policies.So, which of the two should you offer your employees?In today’s article, we are going to review all information relating to overtime pay and comp time and help you decide your best option when it comes to compensating employees for extra hours worked. WHAT IS COMP TIME?Compensatory time, also referred to as comp time or time off in lieu, refers to paid time off that is granted to employees in place of overtime pay.In other words, instead of paying employees for the extra time worked, employers allow employees to take some paid time off from work, equivalent to the number of extra hours they worked.Normally, employees are required to work 40 hours per week.Therefore, if an employee works for more than 40 hours in a given week, comp time allows them to take time off to cover for these hours.For instance, if Stacy works 48 hours in one work week, her boss might allow her to take a day off a day off work the following week i nstead of giving her overtime pay for the 8 extra hours worked.According to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), compensatory time should be calculated at the same rate as overtime pay.Since overtime pay should be calculated at a rate of one and half times the hourly pay for ordinary working hours, the same applies to comp time.In our case above, Stacy would be entitled to 12 hours of comp time after working 8 extra hours. However, offering comp time is not always a good thing to do.Depending on the classification of Stacy’s employment, her boss could actually be exposing the company to a lawsuit by offering Stacy comp time instead of overtime pay.This is because there are some laws governing the use of comp time.LAWS SURROUNDING USE OF COMP TIMEThe laws governing the use of comp time depend on whether an employee is exempt or non-exempt, whether the employee works for the private or public sector, as well as the state in which they work, since some states have their own laws rega rding comp time.An employee’s status as exempt or non-exempt is determined by their job duties and responsibilities.Federal vs. State LawFederally, the eligibility of an employee to receive comp time in lieu of overtime pay is covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, and will depend on whether an employee is considered exempt or non-exempt.Generally, non-exempt employees within the private sector are not eligible for comp time and must be given overtime pay for all extra hours worked.Still, some states have their own laws regarding the use of comp time.For instance, there are a few states that allow employers within the private sector to give their employees comp time instead of overtime.A good example is Washington State, which allows employers to offer comp time, provided the employee has specifically consented to the comp time.California is another great example.Just as with Washington State, employers in California can offer comp time instead of paid overtime, provided the emp loyee has provided written consent to receiving comp time before working the overtime hours.In order to be eligible to comp time, however, the employee should be a full-time worker. The comp time also needs to be calculated at the same rate as federal overtime pay.Unlike other states, California considers overtime to be anything worked in excess of 8 hours in a day, regardless of what happens during the rest of the week.For instance, if an employee works 12 hours one day, but then works 4 hours the next day, they will still have worked 40 hours in a week.In most other states, such an employee is not eligible for overtime compensation, because they have not worked more than 40 hours in a week.In California, however, they will be eligible for overtime compensation for the 4 extra hours worked during that one day of the week.Depending on your state, there may be instances of conflict between federal and state laws regarding the use of comp time.In such cases, greater priority is often given to whatever law provides greater benefit for the employee.The same applies for labor union contracts. If the terms stated in the labor union contract provide greater benefits to the employee than federal or state laws, greater priority will be given to the labor union contract.If, as an employer, you happen to find yourself in a position where there is a conflict between federal laws and state laws or labor union contracts, the best thing is to consult an employment law specialist or get in touch with your State Department of Labor to find out the best course of action.Comp Time for Exempt EmployeesExempt employees are typically not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act. Exempt employees are usually classified as those in executive positions, supervising two or more employees and with the mandate to hire and fire said employees, as well as those whose job duties require them to exercise independent judgment for more than half of their working time.Exempt employees must be on a salary, rather than an hourly wage.Examples of exempt employees include executives, managers, outside sales personnel, and professionals. Some computer and IT professionals are also classified as exempt employees.Exempt employees are exempted from overtime laws, which means that employers are under no obligation to compensate them for overtime, regardless of the number of hours worked within a week. However, the employer can compensate them for overtime if he or she so wishes.Since it is the employer’s discretion to determine whether and how to compensate exempt employees for overtime hours worked, the employer is at liberty to either offer overtime pay or comp time.Since comp time is far much cheaper than providing overtime pay, most employers choose this route for compensating exempt employees for overtime hours worked.If you decide to go down this route, it is imperative to formulate a policy to regulate how and when comp time will be given. This ensures that some level of c onsistency in applying this benefit.In case an exempt employee leaves their position without using up any comp time hours they might have accrued, they are not entitled to receive compensation for the unused time.It is the discretion of the employer to decide whether to compensate them for this time or not.Comp Time for Non-Exempt EmployeesUnder the Fair Labor Standards Act, non-exempt employees are those that are entitled to a minimum wage and overtime pay.These employees must earn $455 or less per week and must work under the direct supervision of someone else. Non-exempt employees are more common in employment sectors such as maintenance and construction.According to the FLSA, non-exempt employees working within the private sector must receive overtime pay for every hour worked in excess of the regular 40 hours per week.The overtime pay should be calculated at a rate of one and a half times their usual hourly rate.For instance, if Stacy, who makes $20 per hour, works for 48 hours during one week, he gross pay for the week should be $1040 ($800 for the regular 40 hours at the usual hourly rate of $20, plus $240 for the eight extra hours at an hourly rate of $30).Since the FLSA states that any non-exempt employee should receive overtime pay for any extra hours worked, it is illegal for employers in the private sector to offer non-exempt employees comp time in lieu of overtime pay.The federal definition of overtime is any hour worked in excess of 40 hours in a week. Like we saw, however, some states, such as California, define their overtime as any amount of time worked in excess of 8 hours per day, rather than the amount of hours worked per week.Therefore, you need to be aware of the laws that govern overtime compensation in your location before issuing overtime pay to non-exempt employees, else you can easily find yourself as the subject of a legal suit.It is also important to note that a workweek does not necessarily mean Monday to Friday. A workweek consis ts of seven consecutive days, regardless of when they start.However, your definition of a workweek cannot keep changing from week to week. It must be consistent.So, what do you do in case a non-exempt employee requests for comp time instead of overtime pay?Regardless of what the employee wants, you should always keep in mind that offering comp time instead of overtime pay is a violation of federal law, and should be avoided unless your state laws state otherwise.It’s also good to note that non-exempt does not mean the same thing as hourly.I have sometimes seen employers mistakenly assume that non-exempt employees are those who are paid by the hour, while any employees paid a salary are automatically categorized as exempt.This assumption is wrong, and can lead employers to unintentionally violate the terms of the FLSA.An employee’s classification as exempt or non-exempt is determined by the duties and responsibilities of their job position, rather than by how they are paid.While all exempt employees are salaried, non-exempt employees could be either salaried or hourly.Therefore, don’t automatically assume that an employee is eligible for comp time just because they are salaried.Comp Time for Government EmployeesFormally structured and recorded comp time is a lot more common in the public sector.According to the Department of Labor, workers employed by federal, state, or local government agencies may be given comp time instead of cash overtime pay, provided certain conditions are met.The comp time for government employees should be calculated at a rate of at least one and a half hours of comp time for every extra hour worked.In order for comp time to be applicable to public sector employees, the following conditions have to be met:Where applicable, an agreement on the use of comp time should be arranged between the employer and union reps.Both the employer and the employee have to agree to the comp time prior to the employee working the extra hours.The com p time must be calculated at a minimum rate of one and a half hours for each extra hour worked.The comp time has to be used within the same pay period that the employee worked the extra hours. This means that accrued comp time cannot be rolled over to the following year.It is also good to note that first responders employed by government agencies â€" such as law enforcement officers, emergency response officers, fire protection personnel, paramedics, park rangers, probation and parole officers, corrections officers, hazardous materials workers, as well as other government employees engaged in seasonal activities â€" are considered as non-exempt employees and are therefore covered by overtime laws.However, they are still eligible to be comp time in lieu of overtime pay.Whereas other government employees are allowed to accrue up to 240 hours of comp time, first responders and seasonal employees can accrue up to a maximum of 480 hours in comp time.It is also good to note that public se ctor employees are allowed to request use of their accrued comp time whenever they deem fit, unless doing so would unduly disrupt the ability of the government agency to efficiently perform its operations.DOES COMP TIME APPLY ON HOLIDAY AND WEEKENDSWhat happens when an employee is required to work during a weekend or holiday? Are you required to compensate them for this time, and if so, how?Well, there are no federal labor laws that make it mandatory for employers to compensate employees for working on a weekend or holiday.Therefore, hours spent working on a weekend or holiday do not qualify for comp time or overtime pay.In addition, it is not mandatory for the employer to give employees time off during holidays and weekends, whether paid or unpaid.Therefore, it is up to the employer to decide whether to give an employee a day off after working during a weekend or holiday.However, such time off is not considered as comp time. Instead, you can think of it as rescheduling the employee ’s day off.SO, IS COMP TIME LEGAL, AND SHOULD YOU OFFER IT?Based on the terms stipulated within the Fair Labor Standards Act, it is illegal for employers in the private sector to offer their employees comp time in place of overtime pay, except for exempt employees.Still, the fact that comp time is illegal hasn’t stopped employers from using it to compensate employees for overtime work, either because they aren’t aware it is illegal, or because the employees have no problem with receiving comp time.A survey carried out by TSheets, which polled about 500 employers found that almost 30% of employers polled use comp time to compensate non-exempt employees for overtime hours worked. 17.4% of the respondents also said that they don’t compensate employees for overtime hours worked, which is also illegal.18% of respondents also claimed that they gave non-exempt employees the option to choose between overtime pay and comp time, with the hope that employees will go for comp time. Note that even this is illegal â€" the fact that employees prefer comp time to overtime pay does is no defense for violating the overtime laws. Source: TSheetsAside from being illegal, comp time might not be the best way of rewarding employees for overtime hours worked.Comp time can be problematic even when offered to exempt employees. Some problems that might arise from comp time include:When offered regularly to exempt employees, they might start asking for it every time they work extra hours, even if the employer is under no obligation to give them comp time.Offering comp time can cause rows over whether employees should be exempt or non-exempt.Sometimes, employees may abuse the comp time policy by working extra hours even when it is not necessary in order to get future time off.Employees can feel cheated in case they need to quit and do not get paid for any comp time they might have accrued.To avoid such issues, any employer who offers comp time to exempt employees should formulate a strict and stringent comp time policy.You should also avoid making comp time come across as an hour-for-hour overtime exchange, unless you are in the public sector where this is required.The key to doing this is to make the comp time an occasional reward, or to use it informally, without putting the extra hours worked on a score card.For instance, if an employee was forced to work extra hours to beat a deadline, the employee’s immediate manager or supervisor might give them an informal comp time by saying something like, “Hey Stacy, you have pushed yourself really hard this week. Why don’t you take Friday off and get some rest.”For employers who want to avoid having to give comp time or overtime pay, you have a few options. You could:Improve and streamline the job so that employees do not have to work extra hours.Adopt a flexible work schedule, such that employees who worked extra hours one day can work less hours another day within the week, so that they balance out and maintain the regular 40 hours per workweek.Assign some tasks to another employee to reduce the likelihood of an employee being forced to work overtime.If there is just too much work, hire an additional employee.PENALTIES FOR COMP TIME VIOLATIONSIt is important to be conversant with both the state and federal rules and regulations surrounding overtime pay and comp time, since violation of these rules can cause serious legal problems for an organization.Violations of comp time regulations are enforced by the Department of Labor.Some of the penalties you stand to face if you are found to be in violation of comp time rules include:Organizations that are found to have willingly violated the laws can be fined up to $10,000.The organization might be required to pay double the amount of back wages owed to employees.If a lawsuit by an employee is prosecuted successfully, the employer might be required to pay the legal fees associated with the suit.Employers who are found to be repeat offenders may face penalties of up to $1,000 per infraction, as well as possible jail time.Any employers who retaliate or discriminate against employ ees for filing comp time violation complaints may face additional fines.The Fair Labor Standards Act also makes it illegal to ship any goods that were produced at a time when the company was in violation of comp time and overtime regulations.WRAPPING UPThe issue of comp time vs. overtime pay can be a bit confusing for employers looking for an effective way of compensating their employees for overtime work.The most important thing to keep in mind when making this decision is to consider the status of your employees.If your employees are exempt, there are no federal directives on how to compensate them for overtime work, in which case you can go with comp time.If your employees are non-exempt, on the other hand, you are obligated to give them overtime pay for any overtime hours worked.Giving them comp time instead of overtime pay is a violation of these laws and exposes your organization to legal suits that may bring along very costly penalties.If you do not want to compensate employe es for overtime, the best thing is to effect changes that decrease the likelihood of employees working extra hours, such as adding extra employees or giving employees a flexible schedule.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Arteriosclerosis Artery and Blood Sugar - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 427 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/23 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Tags: Obesity Essay Did you like this example? Arteriosclerosis refers to several diseases in which the arterial wall thickens and loses its elasticity. Commonly confused with atherosclerosis, which is the formation of plaques consisting of cholesterol and other substances on the arterial walls, arteriosclerosis is the thickening and stiffening of the artery walls from too much pressure. Atherosclerosis can lead to arteriosclerosis, which comes from the Greek for â€Å"hardening of the arteries. † The most common sites for arteriosclerosis are arteries in the brain, kidneys, heart, abdominal aorta, or legs. Symptoms of arteriosclerosis vary according to which arteries are affected. Leg pain when exercising might indicate peripheral arterial disease. Sudden weakness or dizziness could be caused by an obstruction in the carotid artery in the neck, which produces stroke-like symptoms. Chest pain or symptoms of a heart attack might indicate obstruction of the coronary arteries. Arteriosclerosis can also cause erecti le dysfunction. Risk factors for arteriosclerosis include smoking, obesity, high blood pressure and/or cholesterol, stress, and diabetes. A virus or allergic reaction, chronic kidney disease, irritants such as nicotine and drugs, or too much of the amino acid homocystine can also lead to arteriosclerosis. A family history of early heart disease is also a risk factor for developing arteriosclerosis. If you experience any signs of restricted blood flow, you should see your doctor. Those with poor blood flow in one area of the body are likely to have arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis in another part of the body. During a physical exam, your doctor may find signs of either arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis by several methods, including listening to your arteries through a stethoscope. Decreased blood pressure in a limb or lack of a pulse in a narrowed artery could indicate arteriosclerosis. Other warning signs include a bulge in the abdomen or behind the knee. The physician mi ght also notice poor wound healing in an area with restricted blood flow. Blood tests, imaging, ultrasounds, electrocardiograms (EKGs), and other tests help a physician diagnose arteriosclerosis. Treatment varies according to the symptoms and severity of the condition, but can include exercise, medication, or surgery. Some treatments include reducing dietary calcium and increasing magnesium intake. Cholesterol lowering drugs, aspirin therapy, anticoagulants, and vasodilators are used in some cases. Patients should also try to control stress, eat a healthy diet, get regular exercise, refrain from smoking, and maintain healthy levels of cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure. At least four different surgical methods are available for treatment of arteriosclerosis. Another form of treatment is thrombolytic therapy, in which a doctor inserts a clot-dissolving drug into the artery to break up the clot. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Arteriosclerosis: Artery and Blood Sugar" essay for you Create order

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Symbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter

Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter was a novel written in the 1850 s by a man named Nathaniel Hawthorne. Throughout the Scarlet Letter he uses scads of literary devices. The literary devices are there to give the novel more depth. The main device he uses in the novel is symbolism. Hawthorne uses the symbolism to make an object have more than one meaning. Three of the elements he uses as symbols are the scarlet letter, Pearl, and the forest. These symbols are seen differently by the Puritan people and the narrator. The narrator sees those symbols as positive benefit for Hester. While the Puritans see those symbols as a negative affect to the community. The scarlet letter in the novel serves as a prominent symbol. The puritans see the red A as dishonor, sin, shame, indignity and more. Hester has brought all this onto herself because of her actions. She is sentenced to punishment because of being an adulterer.A quote from Hester says The A in scarlet... To assure herself that the infancy and the shame were real. (Hawthorne, 56) She knows of all that will come because of her actions. They use it as a way to exile her to the edge of the community. In the book she goes to Governor Bellingham and she sees herself in the armor, the letter takes up most of her image and this is basically a symbol of how she feels in life. (Get Quote for this) Although the A seems like the worst punishment she could have, it actually is not. What makes it so horrible isShow MoreRelatedSymbolism By Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1140 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism; the use of symbols to represent something abstract by something concrete. It can be powerful in a novel when used correctly. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter is a prime example of Symbolism being used creatively in a work.This is what Hyatt H. Waggoner has to say about the Hawthornes creativity.† But in between the surface and the depths movement is constant and complex, and it is in this middle that the principal value of the work lies.†(Waggoner 73)What Waggoner is talking aboutRead MoreSymbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter 1122 Words   |  5 Pagesdraft Topic: Symbolism of the Scarlet letter â€Å"A† In The Scarlet letter the author Nathaniel Hawthorne illustrates the use of symbolism in the book, especially the scarlet letter â€Å"A.† Symbolism is defined as a figure of speech used for an object, or a word to represent something else in literature. The Scarlet letter â€Å"A† had a change of meaning throughout the novel. In the inception of the book it is known as a symbol of Adultery. As the book continues the scarlet letter is looked at differentlyRead MoreSymbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter 1159 Words   |  5 PagesSymbolism in the Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter written by Nathaniel Hawthorne is known to have a lot of symbolism. Symbolism is a way to convey ideas and give a book a deeper meaning to readers. While there are many symbols in the Scarlet Letter, there are a few that stand out more than others. Pearl, Hester, Dimmesdale, and Chillingworth are all main characters that have symbols. Hawthorne symbols are used to help readers relate to the story. In order to really comprehend the book the readerRead MoreSymbolism, Use Of Color, And Themes Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1657 Words   |  7 PagesSymbolism, Use of Color, and Themes in The Scarlet Letter The Scarlet Letter is regarded as the first symbolic novel in American Literature for Nathaniel Hawthorne s skillful use of symbolism and allegory. The novel is also said to be the greatest accomplishment of American short story and is viewed as the first American psychological novel, which makes Hawthorne win an incomparable position in American Literature. Hawthorne’s â€Å"unique gift† for using this kind of skills taps into the roots of manRead MoreSymbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne s Scarlet Letter And The Minister s Black Veil 1083 Words   |  5 PagesAlex Rojas Ms. Bacon English IV H 11/3/15 Many dark romantics use symbolism to support the themes in their stories. The themes represented by these symbols tend to represent sin and evil. Like many of his writing counterparts, Nathaniel Hawthorne extensively uses symbolism in several of his major works to explore sin and human nature. The Scarlett Letter, â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† and â€Å"The Minister s Black Veil† are all vivid examples of this exploration and are the focus of this analysis. BeforeRead MoreThe Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne919 Words   |  4 Pagesmeaning. Symbolism occurs in everyday ordinary life. One of the most recognizable stories that contain symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†. Symbolism is when an object is used in place of a different object. Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the most symbolic writers in all of American history. In â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†, the letter â€Å"A† is used to symbolize a variety of different concepts. The three major symbolistic ideas that the letter â€Å"A† represents in Nathaniel Hawthorne’sRead MoreNathaniel Hawthorne s The Scarlet Letter1187 Words   |  5 PagesPuritanism in Red Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter shows the early view of Puritanism by concentrating on sin, guilt, and its effects on society. Nathaniel Hawthorne conveyed a dark and romantic style of writing in â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†, impacting the society by focusing on the concepts of romanticism. The Scarlet Letter is considered a classic book and is still read today. Nathaniel Hathorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts on July 4, 1804. He was the son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth ClarkRead MoreABy Major Characters In The Scarlet Letter1202 Words   |  5 PagesInterpretation of the ‘A’ by Major Characters in The Scarlet Letter People have different cultures and experiences throughout their lives; therefore, they all have different perspectives of the same object. Various authors use different perspectives of people to make objects mean different based on how people approach it. Not only the readers see the object in different ways, but also the characters in the story. The Scarlet Letter uses various symbolism such as ‘A , rosebush, the forest and more whichRead More Scarlet Critique Essay870 Words   |  4 Pages The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne was written in 1850. It was based on the Puritans of the 1600s, which were revived in Hawthornes era. Hawthorne descended from Puritan heritage and harbored a sense of guilt and hatred for their way of life. He used many themes and literary techniques in The Scarlet Letter including symbolism and irony. He emphasized the individuals role in the community and the role of women in society. Hawthorne used romanticism as opposed to the classical correctnessRead MoreThe Theme Of Guilt In The Scarlet Letter By Nathaniel Hawthorne935 Words   |  4 Pagesa very famous author, Nathaniel Hawthorne mostly wrote about the puritans in colonial America. Even though the puritan religion died soon after the Salem Witch Trials, Hawthorne is obsessed with their society and writes a lot about the 1600’s. The Scarlet Letter is also based around the puritan community in the 1600’s. While it is not known whether this novel is based on a true story or not it still captures the attention of many readers. The story contains a lot of symbolism that is hidden and encourages

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Baroque Era Questions Free Essays

Baroque Dates: 1600-17501. What does musical style mean? An expressive style of music 2. What was going historically during this era? What was life like? 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Baroque Era: Questions or any similar topic only for you Order Now Was did the term Baroque originally mean? An insult to describe a misshapen or oddly colored pearl 4. Why did early baroque composers favor homophony? 5. What texture did late baroque composers prefer? Polyphonic 6. The musical style of the Baroque era began in what country and then spread Throughout Europe? Italy 7. Church modes gradually gave way to what? Major/ minor scale/tonal system 8. Did instrumental music become Just as important as vocal music? 9. What are some harmonistic traits of baroque rhythms? Regular meter and bar lines are finally present: rhythmic patterns repeated throughout a piece. 10. What are some characteristic traits of baroque melodies? Elaborate and ornamental; not symmetrical (phrases not of equal length); melodic patterns. 11 . What are the dynamics like in Baroque music? 12. Were chords becoming more important? No 13. What voices or parts become more important? Bass- because of the choral structure (root of the chord in the bass), soprano?because of the melody lines. 14 . What is the basso continuo? What instruments play it? The bass line/part of the sic in addition to the group of instruments playing the part. Keyboard and a cello, bassoon, etc. 15. What was a baroque orchestra like? 16. What family of instruments were the most important? Strings 17. What is a movement? Did baroque compositions often consist of multiple movements? A movement is an independent section of a larger work, like a chapter of a book. It is often related in some way (by key structure or melodic or rhythmic motif) to the larger work as a whole. Baroque music was often segmented into movements, slow- fast-slow (French Overture) or fast-slow-fast (The confusion, or Italian overture), and not dance movements, as in Handel’s Water Music or Bach’s lute suites 18. What is the primary or most important way that the movements might contrast one another? Tempo 19. What is opera? What does it include? Where was it invented? Dramatic vocal form blending visual, literary, and musical arts, in which all dialogue is sung. Costumes, sets, props, and it’s staged. Florence, Italy. 20. What is the libretto? The words to the opera 21 . What is an aria? More lyrical, song like portion of an opera. Not speech like, for a solo voice 22. What is a recitative? Rapid words advancing story quickly and clearly Eng, it imitates the natural rhythms of speech. Progresses the story. Only accompanied by the basso continuo. 23. What is a dad capo aria? Ternary (ABA) form. The text for both A sections is exactly the same. Singers typically ornamented or embellished the 2nd A Section 24. What is the ground bass aria? Has a repeated pattern in the bass 25. What is the first significant opera? L’Oreal 26. What is an oratorio? Like an opera but not staged; based on biblical stories 27. What is a passion? Type of oratorio based on the life, death, and resurrection of Christ 28. What is a chorale? A Lutheran hymn tune associated with German Protestantism 29. What is a church cantata? A very short onstage opera written for instruments and one or two voices in a single scene or situation 30. What is a sonata? Instrumental work with 4 contrasting movements. What are the different types? Solo, trio, sonata De camera, sonata De cheese 31 . What is a fugue? A carefully worked out polyphonic piece of music using a theme, subject or motive that occurs in all voices 32. What is a prelude? A rambling, improvisatory sounding piece that is often paired with and played before a fugue 33. What is a suite? Often called a Baroque or dance suite) A collection of dances. Written only for instruments. All dances were in the same key center to unify the dances. 34. What is a confusion? An Italian word for symphony. 35. What is the concerto gross? Small group and large group orchestra A solo concerto? Solo instruments and orchestra. How many movements does it have? 36. What is the arteriole form and how does it work? The first and last movements of concerti gross arena in the formed which is based on alternation between tutu and solo sections. Composers: Please include the following for each (l need to be able to ell that you read about them and did not Just Google them or use Wakefield, etc. And copied and pasted-read your textbook please) a. Dates b. Nationality c. Importance/major contribution d. Types of compositions e. Extra little tidbit 37. Claudio Monteverdi-Laotian composer of the first great opera, named Roofer 38. Henry Purcell- 1685-1750 English an early baroque composer; one of his famous works was dido and nanas. Born in 1659 39. Archangel Cornell-1 563-1713 Developed violin technique in addition to composing from his home country of Italy. Genres: sonata, concerto gross. Trio Sonata in C major, La Folia 40. Antonio Vivaldi- nicknamed the red priest an Italian composer practically invented the retooling form. Composer of the four seasons 41. Johann Sebastian Bach- 1685-1750 German composer who improvised on the pipe organ and was especially known for his fugues. He wrote in every Baroque style except opera. 42. G. F. Handel- 1685-1759 German composer who became an English citizen and wrote the messiah. Became the Experimenter for George, the elector of Hanover in Germany. Genres: Over 20 oratorios, opera serial, Orchestral suites, solo keyboard works, trio sonatas. Music for the Royal firework’s, the water music. How to cite Baroque Era: Questions, Papers

Baroque Era Questions Free Essays

Baroque Dates: 1600-17501. What does musical style mean? An expressive style of music 2. What was going historically during this era? What was life like? 3. We will write a custom essay sample on Baroque Era: Questions or any similar topic only for you Order Now Was did the term Baroque originally mean? An insult to describe a misshapen or oddly colored pearl 4. Why did early baroque composers favor homophony? 5. What texture did late baroque composers prefer? Polyphonic 6. The musical style of the Baroque era began in what country and then spread Throughout Europe? Italy 7. Church modes gradually gave way to what? Major/ minor scale/tonal system 8. Did instrumental music become Just as important as vocal music? 9. What are some harmonistic traits of baroque rhythms? Regular meter and bar lines are finally present: rhythmic patterns repeated throughout a piece. 10. What are some characteristic traits of baroque melodies? Elaborate and ornamental; not symmetrical (phrases not of equal length); melodic patterns. 11 . What are the dynamics like in Baroque music? 12. Were chords becoming more important? No 13. What voices or parts become more important? Bass- because of the choral structure (root of the chord in the bass), soprano?because of the melody lines. 14 . What is the basso continuo? What instruments play it? The bass line/part of the sic in addition to the group of instruments playing the part. Keyboard and a cello, bassoon, etc. 15. What was a baroque orchestra like? 16. What family of instruments were the most important? Strings 17. What is a movement? Did baroque compositions often consist of multiple movements? A movement is an independent section of a larger work, like a chapter of a book. It is often related in some way (by key structure or melodic or rhythmic motif) to the larger work as a whole. Baroque music was often segmented into movements, slow- fast-slow (French Overture) or fast-slow-fast (The confusion, or Italian overture), and not dance movements, as in Handel’s Water Music or Bach’s lute suites 18. What is the primary or most important way that the movements might contrast one another? Tempo 19. What is opera? What does it include? Where was it invented? Dramatic vocal form blending visual, literary, and musical arts, in which all dialogue is sung. Costumes, sets, props, and it’s staged. Florence, Italy. 20. What is the libretto? The words to the opera 21 . What is an aria? More lyrical, song like portion of an opera. Not speech like, for a solo voice 22. What is a recitative? Rapid words advancing story quickly and clearly Eng, it imitates the natural rhythms of speech. Progresses the story. Only accompanied by the basso continuo. 23. What is a dad capo aria? Ternary (ABA) form. The text for both A sections is exactly the same. Singers typically ornamented or embellished the 2nd A Section 24. What is the ground bass aria? Has a repeated pattern in the bass 25. What is the first significant opera? L’Oreal 26. What is an oratorio? Like an opera but not staged; based on biblical stories 27. What is a passion? Type of oratorio based on the life, death, and resurrection of Christ 28. What is a chorale? A Lutheran hymn tune associated with German Protestantism 29. What is a church cantata? A very short onstage opera written for instruments and one or two voices in a single scene or situation 30. What is a sonata? Instrumental work with 4 contrasting movements. What are the different types? Solo, trio, sonata De camera, sonata De cheese 31 . What is a fugue? A carefully worked out polyphonic piece of music using a theme, subject or motive that occurs in all voices 32. What is a prelude? A rambling, improvisatory sounding piece that is often paired with and played before a fugue 33. What is a suite? Often called a Baroque or dance suite) A collection of dances. Written only for instruments. All dances were in the same key center to unify the dances. 34. What is a confusion? An Italian word for symphony. 35. What is the concerto gross? Small group and large group orchestra A solo concerto? Solo instruments and orchestra. How many movements does it have? 36. What is the arteriole form and how does it work? The first and last movements of concerti gross arena in the formed which is based on alternation between tutu and solo sections. Composers: Please include the following for each (l need to be able to ell that you read about them and did not Just Google them or use Wakefield, etc. And copied and pasted-read your textbook please) a. Dates b. Nationality c. Importance/major contribution d. Types of compositions e. Extra little tidbit 37. Claudio Monteverdi-Laotian composer of the first great opera, named Roofer 38. Henry Purcell- 1685-1750 English an early baroque composer; one of his famous works was dido and nanas. Born in 1659 39. Archangel Cornell-1 563-1713 Developed violin technique in addition to composing from his home country of Italy. Genres: sonata, concerto gross. Trio Sonata in C major, La Folia 40. Antonio Vivaldi- nicknamed the red priest an Italian composer practically invented the retooling form. Composer of the four seasons 41. Johann Sebastian Bach- 1685-1750 German composer who improvised on the pipe organ and was especially known for his fugues. He wrote in every Baroque style except opera. 42. G. F. Handel- 1685-1759 German composer who became an English citizen and wrote the messiah. Became the Experimenter for George, the elector of Hanover in Germany. Genres: Over 20 oratorios, opera serial, Orchestral suites, solo keyboard works, trio sonatas. Music for the Royal firework’s, the water music. How to cite Baroque Era: Questions, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Michael Shi Essays - Food And Drink, Personal Life, Cheesemakers

Michael Shi Reading Response 5 This week we returned to a reading from the first week: Piers Vitebsky's "The Reindeer People." In the first week, we read about the history of reindeer people and their r elationship with reindeer. In our reading this week, Vitebsky lives with two groups of reindeer people forming "brigades" during the last years of the Soviet Empire and revisits 5 years later. Vitebesky contrasts the two brigades and how their structure changed how the State treated them and their reindeer. Brigade 10 followed a factory model, where herders worked as a team and traveled away from their families to work. The family-run brigade 7 had built a strong herd using selective breeding, but owned their herd privately. As a result, the government unnecessarily ordered brigade 7's entire herd to be slaughtered after the a few reindeer were infected with a disease. Our other reading, a chapter titled Ecologies of Production in Heather Paxon's "The Life of Cheese," follows the production of cheese in an artisanal cheesemaker and farm called Vermont Shepherd. Paxon argues that Vermont Shepherd is involved in an "ecology of production" where animals, farm life, human social attitudes, politics and other forces work together. Paxon lives with the owners of Vermont Shepherd through the production of a cheese wheel and documents the cheesemaking process, starting from milking sheep. As she reviews each step of this process, Paxon explores its role in the ecology of production. "Dairy animals are cultivated as farm laborers tasked with processing grass and twigs into milk" (Paxon, 45). Cheesemakers refer to their cheese using words such as "toddlers" or "mature," implying cheesemaking is a natural process. Paxon also analyzes the marketing of cheese, where cheesemakers "don't sell [my] cheese because it's good" but instead because of whe re and how it was made. I wasn't convinced by Paxon's argument about "ecologies of production." Paxon argues that " Vermont Shepherd comes into being through a particular ecology of production, an assemblage of organic, social, and symbolic forces " (Paxon 31). The problem I have with this definition of an ecology of production is that it could be applied to almost anything that humans produce involving organic mate rial. For example, cacao act s as converters of su nlight into food for human use. There are politics regarding the labor going into cacao plants and deforestation. Finally, there is an ideal about fair trade chocolate where labor conditions have symbolic value to a consumer. Because production always involves problems regarding labor, we get social and symbolic forces acting on any type of production. I do agree with Paxon that cheesemaking specifically stands out from other forms of production with respect to the forces surrounding it, but I didn't feel th at her stated argument did a good job of conveying that. One concern I have is that I don't get much out of many of our ethnographic readings such as the ones from Vitebsky and Evans-Pritchard that do not have a specific argument . The authors of these pieces document their experiences in the field and explain very clearly what is happening as well as provide background informatio n and I enjoy reading these studies, but I end up not thinking critically about them. For example, in this week's Vitebsky reading, I read a story about a family in Russia's struggle with the Soviet Union and its resolution, but it read to me like a chapter in a book or article I would read casually. Should I be getting more out of these readings? I find it hard to analyze their content without comparing them to other readings. Vitebsky, Piers. 2006. The Reindeer People: Living With Animals and Spirits in Siberia. Boston: Mariner Books. Chapters 3 and 4 (pp. 63-104) 7 Paxson, Heather. 2013. The Life of Cheese: Crafting Food and Value in America. University of California Press. Chapter 2 "Ecologies of Production" (pp. 30-62)

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Creating Windows Service Applications Using Delphi

Creating Windows Service Applications Using Delphi Service applications take requests from client applications, process those requests, and return information to the client applications. They typically run in the background without much user input. Windows services, known also as NT services, offer long-running executable applications that run in their own Windows sessions. These services can be automatically started when the computer boots, can be paused and restarted, and do not show any user interface.   Service Applications Using Delphi Use Delphi to create service applications: Create a service, install and uninstall the service application, make the service do something, and debug the service application using the TService.LogMessage method. Develop a Windows service using Delphi and register it with Windows.Start and stop a Windows service using Delphi to call Win32 functions, for those cases when you must restart one or more services to avoid conflicts at the operating-system level.Retrieve all currently installed services to help both the end user and Delphi programs respond appropriately to the presence, absence or status of specific Windows services. Generate advanced status reporting for running Windows services. The  OpenSCManager()  and OpenService()  functions highlight Delphis flexibility with the Windows platform. More About Windows Services and Delphi Although Delphi is optimized more for typical user-fronted applications, the programming language remains capable of creating service applications. Newer versions of Windows (especially Windows 10) have tightened the rules that service applications have to play by, relative to Windows XP and Windows Vista. If you develop service applications using Delphi, review Microsofts current technical documentation to orient yourself to best practices for Windows 10 and Windows Server.